Most researchers and practitioners define prevention as intervention approaches that are provided before people meet the formal criteria of a depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). There are three types of prevention: universal, selective and indicated prevention.
Acute and maintenance treatment are aimed at people who have established disorders meeting diagnostic criteria. In contrast, there are three types of prevention:
Following the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine's 2009 Report on Preventing Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People, Muñoz, Beardslee and Yelkin identify two broad classes of risk factors for depression (Muñoz, Beardslee & Yelkin, 2012):
Overall, most prevention and health promotion researchers argue that not one factor alone is capable of predicting mental health outcomes in the broader scheme. The biopsychosocial model illustrates that social, cognitive/psychological, and biological factors inform each other and cumulatively influence the risk of depression.
The Biopsychosocial Model